1 tablespoon chili garlic paste (1 to 2 teaspoons sriracha also works)
4 cups shredded kale leaves (see Notes)
2 pounds dried or 3 pounds fresh pappardelle
Shaved Parmesan cheese, for serving
Preheat the oven to 300°F. Season the lamb shanks generously with salt and black pepper (I use about 1 teaspoon salt and ½ teaspoon black pepper). Set aside.
In a large Dutch oven, heat the oil until shimmering. Add the onions and garlic and cook, stirring often, until the onions just begin to soften, 1 to 2 minutes. Add the lamb shanks, wine, tomatoes, carrot, oregano, rosemary, and chili garlic paste, and give it all a good stir. Bring the mixture to a simmer, then cover and place in the oven.
Braise in the oven for 3 to 4 hours, turning the shanks every hour. If the liquid starts to cook dry, add water, 1 cup at a time, enough to keep the liquid about halfway up the lamb. By the end of the cooking time, the meat should be falling off the shanks.
Remove the pot from the oven and use tongs to remove the shanks from the pot. Use forks to pull the meat off the bone and shred it finely, then return the shredded meat to the pot and stir. Place over medium-low heat and add the kale. Let simmer until the kale is tender, 15 to 20 minutes.
Meanwhile, bring a large pot of water to a boil for the pasta. Cook the pasta according to package directions. Divide the cooked pasta between six to eight bowls, top with the ragu, and serve with plenty of shaved Parmesan on the side.
Feel free to use pork shoulder in place of the lamb, if preferred. Collard greens also work wonderfully here in place of the kale.